What are the parts of speech?
In English grammar, parts of speech are the category of words intended to reflect their functions in grammatical context or have similar grammatical properties.
Words are considered the smallest ingredients. Based on their use and functions, these are categorized into different parts of speech.
There are eight parts of speech in the English language. Parts of speech list is as under:
- Noun (Naming word)
- Pronoun (Replaces a noun)
- Verb (Action Word)
- Adjective (Qualifies noun)
- Adverb (Describe a word)
- Preposition (Shows relationship)
- Conjunction (Joining word)
- Interjection (Expressive word)
Name of person, place, thing or idea
Examples: Shahid, Pakistan, table, wish
Example sentences: Shahid lives in Karachi. Pervaiz uses pen and paper to write letters.
What are the types of nouns?
Proper Noun: Starts with a capital letter and refers to specific names of a person, place or thing.
Examples: Akmal, Karachi, Suzuki Car
Common Noun: These are the opposite of proper nouns and are just generic names of persons, places or things.
Examples: cycle, playground, ice cream parlor.
Concrete Noun: It can be perceived by your senses.
Examples: paper, sand.
Abstract Noun: These cannot be perceived through your five senses.
Examples: sadness, bravery.
Count Noun: Anything that is countable, and has a singular and plural form.
Examples: kids, book, bike.
Mass Noun: It is the opposite of count nouns. Mass nouns are also called non-countable nouns. They need to have “counters” to quantify them.
Examples of Counters: gallon, kilo, cup, meter
Examples of Mass Nouns: water, flour, distance
Collective Noun: It refers to a group of persons, animals, or things.
Example: faculty (group of teachers), pride(group of lions),
A pronoun is used in place of a noun or noun phrase to avoid repetition.
Examples: I, he, she, you, we, they, it, me, us, them, him, her, this, those
Example sentences: Shahid is going to school. He wants to drink water.
A verb shows an action or state of being. A verb shows what someone or something is doing.
Examples: go, play, live, walk, have, like, are, is, speak, run
Example sentences: I like English book. I study their stories.
An adjective describes, modifies or gives more information about a noun or pronoun.
Examples: young, fun, crazy, big, happy, green.
Example sentences: The little boy had a red hat.
An adverb describes/modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. It tells how, where, when, how often or to what extent.
Examples: slowly, quietly, very, tomorrow, here, always, never.
Example sentences: I am usually busy. Yesterday, I ate my breakfast quickly.
What are the types of adverbs?
Adverb of Time: It states “when” something happens or “when” it is done.
Example: He went yesterday.
Adverb of Place: It tells something about “where” something happens or ”where” something is done.
Example: He looked everywhere.
Adverb of Manner: It refers to how something happens or how an action is done.
Example: He completed his task amicably.
Adverb of Degree: States intensity or degree to which a specific thing happens or is done.
Example: The child is very talented.
A preposition shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word. They can indicate time, place, or relationship.
Examples: at, on, in, from, between, about, under, with.
Example sentences: I left my pen on the table for you.
A conjunction joins two words, ideas, phrases or clauses together in a sentence and shows how they are connected.
Examples: and, or, but, because, since, if, so, yet.
Example sentences: I was hot and exhausted but I still finished the race successfully.
An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses a strong feeling or emotion. It is a short exclamation.
Examples: Wow! Oh! Hey! Hi! Great! Help!
Example sentences: Wow! I passed my Chemistry test with good marks.