Arithmetic is the foundation of mathematics. Arithmetic is most probably one of the first few subjects that you have learned in your school life. It deals with numbers as well as numerical computation. Topics in Arithmetic include whole numbers, place values, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, percents, integers, proportions, decimals, exponents, scientific notations, factoring, fractions and word problems.
Apart from above, there are 04 basic mathematical operations i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division which are used in a wide range of everyday skills and are the fundamental blocks of arithmetic.
Addition is the operation that involves calculating the total amount of a represented group. To add a set of numbers together, we first need to line them up vertically by place value. Then, add each column of numbers from right to left. If a column has a sum greater than 9, we will carry the tens place to the next column.
Subtraction is the operation that involves taking away value from the total amount. To subtract whole numbers, we will need to line the numbers up by place value from right to left. Next, we will subtract each place value. Occasionally, the value that we are subtracting is not large enough to take away the value. When this happens, we must borrow value from the next place value. When you borrow from the next place value, you are borrowing a set of ten. This set of ten is added to the existing value, and subtraction is continued.
Multiplication is the process of adding multiple sets of the same number. To multiply, we will take each place value and multiply it to every value in the other number. If the number being multiplied has more than one value, you must add a zero as a place holder each time you move to the next place value. This process continues until all of the places have been multiplied.
Division is a process of taking a total value and dividing in into equal parts. The value that is being divided is called the dividend, and the value that we are dividing into is called the divisor.