A noun that is used for the names of persons instead of their names, is called personal pronoun. For example, I, we, you, he, she, they, it
Personal Pronoun Cases
A personal pronoun should be in the subjective case if the pronoun functions as a subject or subject complement.
A subject pronoun usually
- We are successful. (Subject)
- You like pizza. (Subject)
- The winners were Majid and I. (Subject complement)
If a pronoun stands for any other noun than a subject or subject complement, use the objective case.
Object pronouns can be direct objects, indirect objects or objects of prepositions. You may have noticed that you and it are in both lists.
- The secretary notified us today. (direct object)
- My uncle sent you an e-mail.
- For her, I would do anything.
In possessive case, the pronouns show possession or belonging. It has two types:
These are used before a noun such as my, your, his, her, its, ours, theirs etc.
Example: This is your table.
The possessive pronouns are used instead of personal pronoun such as mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.
Example: This is your table. It is similar to mine.
In reflexive case, the pronoun is used before the noun, pronoun, adjective or adverb in the same clause. Reflexive pronouns are myself, ourselves, yourself, himself, herself etc.
- I wash the car myself.
- He completed his assignments himself.
Chart of Personal Pronoun
Following table shows the different cases of personal pronouns. In the possessive case, first word is possessive determiner (my, our, your…) and second word is possessive pronoun (mine, ours, yours….)
|Subjective or |
|Objective case||Possessive case||Reflexive case|
Use of object or subject pronoun after comparatives “as” and “than”. Object pronouns is commonly used when “as” and “than” work as prepositions.
- She is as beautiful as her thoughts.
- He is smarter than them both.
Subject pronouns are used if “as” and “than” function as a conjunction.
When clause can be completed after the pronoun. For example,
- She is as old as I am.
- You are taller than I am.
Object pronouns are used in the following case exclamation. For example, He has been promoted – lucky him.
“One” is used as indefinite pronoun meaning such as anyone or everyone.
- One must do one’s job.
“So” and “it” are replaceable after certain verbs like do, guess, know, remember. For example,
Do you know he got admission to a college? Yes, I know it.
“It” is used as an empty subject in the following situations.
- With time: It is 4 ‘O’ clock.
- Weather: It is pleasant today.
- Temperature: It is 23 Fahrenheit today.
- Distance: It is 10 kilometers away from this town.
- Environment: It is a noisy place.
- Takes: It takes one hour to reach there.
- Unknown Person: Did something ring? …It was Jami.
- Things, Action or Idea: It is difficult. It is night.
With such structures with a “to-infinitive” or a “that – clause” for example,
- It is nice to see you again.
- It is sorrowful that you teased her.
We use “its” before a noun to express the possession. For example, I have forgotten its number.
“It’s” shows the short form of “it is” or “it has”. For example, I think it’s (it is) time to sleep now.