Logical Reasoning

Logical Reasoning MCQs (Practice Test)

This test involves letter sequences and tests your ability to think logically and analytically. Some employers use similar tests as part of their selection procedures. Some terminologies from logics are also frequently used in logical reasoning section that the test taker cannot ignore.  The candidates who can read critically and understand simple logic and reasoning perform better in tests. This sample test will give you some idea of what to expect and will be helpful in understanding the logical reasoning.

Q. 1. After the declaration of company election results, the elected chairperson gave his message the workers that, “The responsibility of the management is to serve and not to dominate the workers”.

Which of the following is one basic assumption underlying chairperson’s statement?

A. The management is capable of dominating the workers.

B. The management chooses to serve rather than dominate the workers.

C. Domination over the workers by the management is virtue.

D. One must be decisive when facing company union for the first time.

Q. 2. In an vitro study, 160 white cats were injected wit Salt X. 160 other white cats were injected with placebo. In two weeks, 39% of the white cats, who were injected with Salt X showed symptoms of Kay fever? Hence, it can be concluded that Kay fever is caused by some elements similar to the elements in Salt X.

Which of the following statements would most seriously weaken the above discussion?

A. People suffering from kay fever are victims of golden viper of Sindh.

B. One among the 160 white cats had already showed symptoms of Kay fever prior to the experiment.

C. The natural habitats of white cats does not contain any of the elements found in Salt X.

D. The 160 white cats used in the experiments were kept isolated from each other.

Q.3. Emissions from automobiles that burn gasoline and automobiles that burn diesel fuel are threatening the
quality of life on our planet, contaminating both urban air and global atmosphere. Therefore, the only effective way to reduce such emissions is to replace the conventional diesel fuel and gasoline used in automobiles with cleaner-burning fuels, such as methanol, that create fewer emissions.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) Reducing the use of automobiles would not be a more effective means to reduce automobile emissions than the use of methanol.
(B) There is no fuel other than methanol that is cleaner-burning than both diesel fuel and gasoline.
(C) If given a choice of automobile fuels, automobile owners would not select gasoline over methanol.
(D) Automobile emissions constitute the most serious threat to the global environment.
(E) At any given time there is a direct correlation between the level of urban air pollution and the level of contamination present in the global atmosphere.

Q.4. Doctors in Britain have long suspected that patients who wear tinted eyeglasses are abnormally prone to depression and hypochondria. Psychological tests given there to hospital patients admitted for physical complaints like heart pain and digestive distress confirmed such a relationship. Perhaps people whose relationship to the world is psychologically painful choose such glasses to reduce visual stimulation, which is perceived as irritating. At any rate, it can be concluded that when such glasses are worn, it is because the wearer has a tendency to be depressed or hypochondriacal.
The argument assumes which one of the following?
(A) Depression is not caused in some cases by an organic condition of the body.
(B) Wearers do not think of the tinted glasses as a means of distancing themselves from other people.
(C) Depression can have many causes, including actual conditions about which it is reasonable for anyone to be depressed.
(D) For hypochondriacs wearing tinted glasses, the glasses serve as a visual signal to others that the wearer’s health is delicate.
(E) The tinting does not dim light to the eye enough to depress the wearer’s mood substantially.

Q.5. Provinces and states with stringent car safety requirements, including required use of seat belts and annual safety inspections, have on average higher rates of accidents per kilometer driven than do provinces and states with less stringent requirements. Nevertheless, most highway safety experts agree that more stringent requirements do reduce accident rates.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the safety experts’ belief with the apparently contrary evidence described above?
(A) Annual safety inspections ensure that car tires are replaced before they grow old.
(B) Drivers often become overconfident after their cars have passed a thorough safety inspection.
(C) The roads in provinces and states with stringent car safety programs are far more congested and therefore dangerous than in other provinces and states.
(D) Psychological studies show that drivers who regularly wear seat belts often come to think of themselves as serious drivers, which for a few people discourages reckless driving.
(E) Provinces and states with stringent car safety requirements have, on average, many more kilometers of roads then do other provinces and states.

Q.6. Calories consumed in excess of those with which the body needs to be provided to maintain its weight are normally stored as fat and the body gains weight. Alcoholic beverages are laden with calories. However, those people who regularly drink two or three alcoholic beverages a day and thereby exceed the caloric intake necessary to maintain their weight do not in general gain weight.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent discrepancy?
(A) Some people who regularly drink two or three alcoholic beverages a day avoid exceeding the caloric intake necessary to maintain their weight by decreasing caloric intake from other sources.
(B) Excess calories consumed by people who regularly drink two or three alcoholic beverages a day tend to be dissipated as heat.
(C) Some people who do not drink alcoholic beverages but who eat high-calorie foods do not gain weight.
(D) Many people who regularly drink more than three alcoholic beverages a day do not gain weight.
(E) Some people who take in fewer calories than are normally necessary to maintain their weight do not lose weight.

Q.7. Cigarette companies claim that manufacturing both low- and high-nicotine cigarettes allows smokers to choose how much nicotine they want. However, a recent study has shown that the levels of nicotine found in the blood of smokers who smoke one pack of cigarettes per day are identical at the end of a day’s worth of smoking, whatever the level of nicotine in the cigarettes they smoke.

Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain the finding of the nicotine study?
(A) Blood cannot absorb more nicotine per day than that found in the smoke from a package of the lowest-nicotine cigarettes available.
(B) Smokers of the lowest-nicotine cigarettes available generally smoke more cigarettes per day than smokers of high-nicotine cigarettes.
(C) Most nicotine is absorbed into the blood of a smoker even if it is delivered in smaller quantities.
(D) The level of tar in cigarettes is higher in low nicotine cigarettes than it is in some high nicotine cigarettes.
(E) When taking in nicotine by smoking cigarettes is discontinued, the level of nicotine in the blood decreases steadily.

Q.8. Industry experts expect improvements in job safety training to lead to safer work environments. A recent survey indicated, however, that for manufacturers who improved job safety training during the 1980s, the number of on-the-job accidents tended to increase in the months immediately following the changes in the training programs.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent discrepancy in the passage above?
(A) A similar survey found that the number of on the-job accidents remained constant after job safety training in the transportation sector was improved.
(B) Manufacturers tend to improve their job safety training only when they are increasing the size of their workforce.
(C) Manufacturers tend to improve job safety training only after they have noticed that the number of on-the-job accidents has increased.
(D) It is likely that the increase in the number of on-the-job accidents experienced by many companies was not merely a random fluctuation.
(E) Significant safety measures, such as protective equipment and government safety inspections, were in place well before the improvements in job safety training.

Q.9. Raisins are made by drying grapes in the sun. Although some of the sugar in the grapes is caramelized in the process, nothing is added. Moreover, the only thing removed from the grapes is the water that evaporates during the drying, and water contains no calories or nutrients. The fact that raisins contain more iron per calorie than grapes do is thus puzzling.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to explain why raisins contain more iron per calorie than do grapes?
(A) Since grapes are bigger than raisins, it takes several bunches of grapes to provide the same amount of iron as a handful of raisins does.
(B) Caramelized sugar cannot be digested, so its calories do not count toward the calorie content of raisins.
(C) The body can absorb iron and other nutrients more quickly from grapes than from raisins because of the relatively high water content of grapes.
(D) Raisins, but not grapes, are available year round, so many people get a greater share of their yearly iron intake from raisins than from grapes.
(E) Raisins are often eaten in combination with other iron-containing foods, while grapes are usually eaten by themselves.

Q.10. Vervet monkeys use different alarm calls to warn each other of nearby predators, depending on whether the danger comes from land or from the air.

Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the behavior of vervet monkeys described above?
(A) By varying the pitch of its alarm call, a vervet monkey can indicate the number of predators approaching.
(B) Different land-based predators are responsible for different numbers of vervet monkey deaths.
(C) No predators that pose a danger to vervet monkeys can attack both from land and from the air.
(D) Vervet monkeys avoid land-based predators by climbing trees but avoid predation from the air by diving into foliage.
(E) Certain land-based predators feed only on vervet monkeys, whereas every predator that attacks vervet monkeys from the air feeds on many different animals.